Poverty is the lack of basic human needs, such as clean and fresh water, nutrition,health care, education, clothing and shelter, because of the inability to afford them. This is also referred to as absolute poverty or destitution. relative poverty is the condition of having fewer resources or less income than others within a society or country, or compared to worldwide averages. About 1.7 billion people live in absolute poverty.

Poverty is additionally seen as a state of mind and a lifestyle- more than just a lack of materials. It is a state of deprivation and insecurity. Even those who can get above poverty are always close to falling back into its clutches. [5]

Accumulation of wealth, sometimes resulting in overall poverty reduction within a nation or society, has historically been a result of economic growth as increased levels of production, such as modern industrial technology, made more wealth available for some individuals and groups within societies and nation states.[4][6][7] Wealth distribution however, often occurs along highly unequal lines. This sometimes prompts redistributive approaches to poverty reduction. Investments in modernizing agriculture and increasing yields via green revolution technology is often considered the core of the antipoverty effort, given three-quarters of the world‘s poor are rural farmers.[8][9] However, alternative theories of development economics cite the process of agricultural industrialization as a driver of unequal land distribution , declining food security, and rural urban migration.

Neoliberal approaches to development, as promoted by the World Bank, IMF, and WTO include extending and enforcing property rights, especially to land, to the poor, and making financial service, notably savings, accessible. While this process encourages integration into the global market, some sectors of society, especially informal subsistence farmers and indigenous people, who often struggle to gain legal recognition of property rights, can be negatively affected.Inefficient institutions, corruption and political instability can also make state recognition of such rights difficult. Government support in health, education and infrastructure helps alleviate poverty by increasing human and physical capital.

Effects of poverty

The effects of poverty may also be causes, as listed above, thus creating a “poverty cycle” operating across multiple levels, individual, local, national and global.


Hunger,disease, and less education describe a person in poverty. One third of deaths – some 18 million people a year or 50,000 per day – are due to poverty-related causes: in total 270 million people, most of them women and children, have died as a result of poverty since 1990 Those living in poverty suffer disproportionately from hunger or even starvation and disease Those living in poverty suffer low life expectancy. According to the World Health Organization, hunger and malnutrition are the single gravest threats to the world’s public health and malnutrition is by far the biggest contributor to child mortality, present in half of all cases.

Poverty often drastically affects children’s success in school. A child’s “home activities, preferences, mannerisms” must align with the world and in the cases that they do not these students are at a disadvantage in the school and most importantly the classroom. Therefore, it is safe to state that children who live at or below the poverty level will have far less success educationally than children who live above the poverty line. Poor children have a great deal less healthcare and this ultimately results in many absences from the academic year. Additionally, poor children are much more likely to suffer from hunger, fatigue, irritability, headaches, ear infections, flu, and colds. These illnesses could potentially restrict a child or student’s focus and concentration.